2018年中考英语总复*(四川):第2轮 语法专题聚焦 专题三 介词 (共40张PPT)_图文

发布于:2021-05-12 00:28:20

英语
四川地区

专题三 介词
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考向导航

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第一讲 介词词义与辨析

1. 方位介词 ◆ 图解方位介词 in, on, to

Japan lies to the east of China in the east of Asia. It faces the Pacific on the east. 日本在亚洲东部(范围内), 位于中国东部(不接壤), 东临太*洋(接

壤) 。
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◆ 图解方位介词through, across

It's dangerous to play phones while walking across the street. 过马路的时候玩手机是危险的。(表面通过) There is no signal of phones when the train goes through the tunnel. 火车 穿过隧道时手机没有信号。(穿过一个空间)

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◆ 图解方位介词 above, on, over及其反义词

There is a bridge with a long history over the river. 河上那座桥有着悠 久的历史。(河的正上方) On the morning of Teachers' Day, students put some flowers on the teaching desk for their teachers. 教师节那天早上,学生们给老师的讲 台上放了一些花。(鲜花和桌子表面有接触) The mountain is about 2, 000 meters above the sea level. 那座山的海拔 大约是两千米。(表示位置高于某物,不一定在正上方)
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◆ 方位介词in front of, in the front of

介词 in front of in the front of

含义 意为“在……的 前面” 意为“在……的 前部”

差异 强调某物体外部的 前面 强调某物体内部的 前面

反义词 behind

at the back of

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◆ 方位介词 to, for, towards, into, onto 介词 to 用法 表示到达目的地 意为“向……”,表示目的 地 示例 They walked to the zoo ten minutes ago. They'll leave for London next Tuesday.

for

towards

意为“向……进发”, 并不 表示到达之意
意为“进入……里”,表示 运动或变化, 侧重动作 意为“到……上”,表示位 置的改变

The plane is flying towards the city centre.
The angry boy rushed into the room. The cat jumped onto the desk quickly.
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into

onto

◆ 方位介词by, at, beside, near, next to 介词
by

用法
意为“在……边上”,比 near更*一些 意为“在……旁边”

示例
Mrs. Wang stands by the door.

at

Don't put the chair at the table.

beside

意为“在……旁边”, 相 当于next to
意为“在……附*”,表示 的距离稍远一些

Put your pencil box beside your books.
Is there a post office near our school? There is a supermarket near the café .

near

next to

意为“紧靠……的旁边”

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◆ 综合图解

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【巧思妙记】 里面、上面in和on, over, under上下方; 还有below, above, 细微差别记心上; 紧挨着, next to, 附*还有near来助; in front of 前, behind后, 范围之外心里有; 范围之里不用愁, in the front of记心头; 出来out of, 进入into, around环绕记清楚。

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【即时自测】

A

1)It's a scary folk legend that nobody can walk ____ the forest with breath.
A. through C 2)It's reported that the high-speed rail will be operated the next year ____ B. across C. along D. down

the two cities.
A. in B. to C. between D. across 3)—Mom, I can't find my basketball. Do you see it anywhere?

—Yes, it's ____ the bed in your room. B under C. beneath D. in A. below B.

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4)Ice is not oftenB seen in the southern cities in China because the temperature
normally stays ____ zero. A. over B. above C. on D. through A a village near the town, and the air there 5)My parents are eager to live ____ is much fresher than that in cities. A. in B. to C. between D. on

6)Taiwan lies ____ the east of Fujian province, ____ the southeast of China. B A. on; in B. to; in C. on; to D. to; on

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2. 时间介词 ◆ 时间介词 in, on, at 介词 用法 示例

用在较长的一段时间前(世 My little brother was born in 1997. 纪、年、季节、月份等) in 用于泛指的上午、下午和 晚上 用于表示具体某一天或某 一天的上午、下午、晚上 on 用于表示特定的日子、具 体的日期、星期、节日等 前 I'm used to reading newspaper before breakfast in the morning. John went to study abroad on the afternoon of a cool day last year.

We hold national flagraising ceremony on Monday.
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表示具体时间点,用于钟点、 I get up at 7:00 every 时刻等名词前 morning.
at

表示某个节日期间

We had a trip to Australia at Christmas.

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◆ 时间介词 in, after

介词

用法 用在一般将来时中, 表示“……之后”, 后接时间段 用在一般将来时中, 表示“……之后”, 后接时间点

示例 Her brother will attend Tsinghua University in two weeks. We will arrive at the Dalian Airport after five o'clock. The doctor returned after half an hour.
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in

after 用在一般过去时中, 表示“……之后”, 后接时间段

◆ 时间介词 until/ till, by 介词 用法 用于否定句,意用为“直 到……才”, 谓语动词要用 瞬间性动词 until/till
用于肯定句,意用为“直 到……”, 谓语动词要用延 续性动词 意为“到……时候, 当(某时 候)到了” by I did my homework until eleven o'clock last night. By the time you get home, I will finish the housework.

示例
The boy didn't go to bed until his father came back home yesterday.

最迟在某一时刻或某一日之 前(可表现在过去或将来)

You must hand in your homework by next Monday.
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◆ 时间介词 from, since

介词

用法 表示“从……起”, 常与介 词to搭配:from... to...

示例 I was washing my clothes from one to two yesterday.

from

since

现在完成时标志词,表示 “自……以来”, 后接“具 Mr. White has lived in 体的过去某一时间点”或 Beijing since 2002. “时间段+ago”或“一般过 去时的句子”

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◆ 时间介词 during, through, for 介词 用法 意为“在……期间”, 后 接时间段,不用于现在完成 时
意为“从……开始到……结 束”, 强调动作发生的全 过程 意为“(时间)长达……”, 可与多种时态连用,用延续 性动词

示例
Students play all kinds of games during the class break.

during

through

It's very cold through the whole winter this year.

for

The Greens have lived in Shanghai for 8 years.

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【巧思妙记】 at用在时刻前, 亦与正午、午夜连; 黎明、终止和开端, at与之紧相伴。 周月季年长时间, in须放在其前面; 泛指一晌和傍晚, 也要放在in后边。 on指特定某一天, 日期、星期和节日前; 某天上、下午和夜晚, 依然要在on后站。

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【即时自测】
7)—How long has TFboys been a popular band? C —____2013, when they released a short video called A Decade of Promise.

A. From B. With
C. Since D. In 8)My mother has gone to Xinjiang to pick cotton, and she will be back ____ B

two months.
A. for B. in C. to D. before

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B
9)For many Western people, they love to drink cold water even ____ winter.

A. through B. in
C. to D. among 10)—Do you know what the date of climbing Taibai Mountain is? —No, I can't remember it clearly. It's ____ a sunny day in April. C A. in B. at C. on D. to

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3. 方式介词
◆ 表示工具或手段的介词 by, on, in, with

介词
by

用法

示例

表示凭借“工具或手段”, This skirt is so expensive because it is 名词前不用冠词 made by hand. 意为“以……方式”,表 示用手段、通讯方式等 It's really cheap and convenient for people to communicate on computer video call. I can't speak it in English.

on

in

通常表示用某种语言,名 词前无冠词

with

意为“用(以/ 借助)……”, To my surprise, this little girl can write 其后常跟具体的工具 so many Chinese words with a pencil.
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◆ 表示交通方式的介词 by, in, on
介词 用法 与交通工具有关的名词连用,表示 交通方式 by 后跟表示交通工具的单数名词, 且 名词前无修饰词 用在封闭型的交通工具前, 且该名 词前有限定词 用于开放型或半开放型的交通工具 前, 且该名词前有限定词,有时用 于固定词组 示例

I'm going there by bus.
It only needs two hours from Xi'an to Changsha by plane. I decided to go to work in a car because of rain. He is tired, and he doesn't want to go to the park on foot.
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in

on

4. 其他常见介词 ◆ as 与like

介词 as

用法

示例

意为“作为; 以……身份”, Hu Ge is known to us as an 表示事实 actor. 意为“像……一样” Let me speak to you like a father.

like

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◆ for 与against
两个单词互为反义词, against意为“反对”, for意为“支持”。如: Are you for or against this plan?你是支持还是反对这个计划?

◆ beyond
① 表位置,意用为“在……那一边; 更远处”。如: There is a village beyond the river. 河的那一边有一个村庄。

② 表时间,意用为“超过;迟于”。如:
If it is beyond the midnight, I will not wait for you any longer. 如果迟于午 夜, 我将不再等你。

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③ 表范围、水*、能力、限度等,意用为“多于;超出”。如:

This question is too difficult for him. It's far beyond his understanding. 这
个问题对他而言太难了,远远超出了他的理解范围。

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【即时自测】

D

11)They save money ____ cooking their own meals instead of eating
outside. A. for B. in C. with D. by A the use of Internet, people can gather information that they need 12)____ more quickly. A. With B. By C. In D. On

13)Could you tell me what it is ____ Japanese?
A. for B. in C. with D. by B

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D 14)My sister is talking ____ the phone with her best friend in Canada. A. for B. in C. with D. on A me, I'm afraid I can't work it out. 15)—This problem is ____
—Don't worry, we will help you if you need.

A. beyond B. beside C. behind D. between

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第二讲 介词短语 分类 示例

at home在家;at school在学校;at noon在中午;at night在晚上;at work在工作;at sea在大海上;at the same time同时;at times有时;at breakfast早餐时;at midnight在午夜;at the moment在此刻;after a while过了一会 by bus乘公共汽车;by the way 顺便说;by the time 到……时候;by turns轮流;by mistake错误地;by the door在门口 介词 in hospital住院;in the hospital在医院;in the end最后;in order整整 +名 齐齐;in order to以便;in no time很快, 立即;in the daytime在白天; 词 in turn轮流;in time及时;in front 在前方;in English用英语;in the future将来;in future今后;in fact事实上on the way在路上;on Sunday在星期天;on show展出;on display陈列;on fire着火;on duty值日;on the other hand另一方面;on foot步行;on business出差; on board在船(飞机)上;on holiday在休假;on the telephone在接(打)电 话;on time准时;on the
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介词+ 名词

left/right在左边/右边;on sale在出售;on watch值班;on the earth在地球上 with pleasure很乐意;with one's belp在某人的帮助下

be+形容 词+介词

be amazed at 对……感到惊讶;be angry with(sb. )生(某人的) 气;be afraid of 害怕;be busy with忙于做……;be good at 擅长于;be full of充满;be excited about 对……感到兴奋; be kind to 对……和善;be interested in对……感兴趣;be famous for因……而著名;be late for迟到;be popular with 受……欢迎;be pleased with对……感到满意;be proud of 对……感到骄傲;be ready for为……准备好;be satisfied with 对……满意;be worried about为……担心

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agree with同意;ask for要求;begin with以……开始;come from来自;call at探访;die of死于;get on/off上车/下车;fill... with用……装;fall off从……落下;hear from收到(某人)的信; 动词+ hear of听说;look at看;go to bed去睡觉;go to school去上学; look for寻找;look after照顾;listen to 听……;pay for 付钱; 介词 point to指向;point at指着;send for派人去叫;run across碰到; talk about谈论;think about考虑;wait for等候;write to写信 给……;worry about担心;laugh at嘲笑;fall behind落在…… 后面;knock at敲

at the foot of在……脚下;on the top of 在……顶端;in the 介词+ middle of在……中间;in the front of在……前面;in the east of 名 在……东部 词+介 by means of借助;at the beginning of起初;by the end of 到…… 词 为止;at the age of在……岁时;at the head of 在……前头
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【注意】
※ in the wall 表示嵌在墙里面,而on the wall表示在墙的表面。如: There is a hole in the wall. 墙上有个洞。 There is a family picture on the wall. 墙上有一张全家福。 ※ in the tree和on the tree 均表示“在树上”, 但用法不同。in the tree 表示本身不是树上的事物,而on the tree表示树上本身长的东西。如: The birds are singing in the tree. 鸟儿们正在树上唱歌。 There are some apples on the tree. 树上结了一些苹果。

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【即时自测】
16)Everyone may meet difficulties in daily life, so we should try our best A to help the people who are ____.

A. in need B. in surprise
C. in common D. in practice 17)The girl combed her hair ____ A her mother in the past. But now she can do it by herself. A. with the help of B. at the back of C. instead of D. because of

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命题方向

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方向一 介词词义辨析 介词的基本用法就是具体词义, 需要考生熟记并掌握方位介词

、时间介词、方式介词等介词的意义。

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【例1】(2017, 临沂) A couple from Australia welcomed five healthy babies ________ January.

A. at B. in C. for D. on
解析:句意“一对来自澳大利亚的夫妇在一月迎来了他们五个健康的孩 子。”空后是表示月份的名词,因此用时间介词in。故选B。

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【例2】(2017, 重庆A卷) ________ May 5th, 2017, the C919 took off successfully for the first time at Shanghai Pudong International Airport. A. On B. In C. At D. Of 解析:句意“2017年5月5日, C919在上海浦东国际机场首飞成功。” 具体到某一天用介词on。故选A。

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方向二 介词的固定搭配 介词的固定搭配是中考的重要考查方式之一,主要体现在单项选择和短 文填空中。不同的介词搭配其他词后,意用义也是大相径庭, 做题过 程中要根据语境来判断语意,选出最佳答案。

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【例3】(2017, 甘肃联考) The whole family were________ agreement about what they should do next.

A. about

B. of

C. in

D. on

解析:考查介词的固定搭配。句意:“一家人就他们下一步应该做什么 达成一致意见。”in agreement 表示意见(想法)达成一致,故选C。

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【例4】(2017, 宿迁) Your gloves should be made ________ leather, for they feel soft and smooth. A. in B. on C. for D. of 解析:句意“你的手套应该是由皮革制成的,因为它们摸起来很软、很 光滑。”be made of+材料意为“由……制成”, 为固定搭配。故选D 。

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